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Process, Practice & Impact classification:

The following processes, practices and impacts relate to key technical and commercial activities of the Scottish shale oil industry or are associated with the community and environmental impact of their operations :

1.4.4 - Wax Separation & Processing
Oil shale produced a crude oil with a particularly high wax content which had to be separated from liquid oils. Wax was initially separated from oil mixtures by passing wax-rich oil fractions through cooled filter presses which encouraged the formation of wax flakes which were retained on the filter cloth. The first pass through such presses was cooled by water, the second chilled to a lower temperature with an ammonia refrigerant. Wax sweating was another process for removing oil from waxes and separating the different fractions oil and wax

1 - Technical Processes (6 Items)
1.1 - Shale Geology & Mineral Prospecting
1.1.1 - Geological Maps & Publications (86 Items)
1.1.2 - Mineral & Fossil Specimens (591 Items)
1.1.3 - Geologist & Prospector's Equipment (1 Items)
1.1.4 - Annotated Maps & Bore Data (132 Items)
1.2 - Shale Mining
1.2.1 - Underground Mining Plans (178 Items)
1.2.2 - Underground Haulage & Winding (244 Items)
1.2.3 - Underground Machinery & Services (27 Items)
1.2.4 - Underground Hand Tools, Lamps & Graith (102 Items)
1.2.5 - Surface Mine Layout, Buildings & Services (40 Items)
1.2.6 - Opencast Mining & Other Extraction (6 Items)
1.3 - Crude Oil Production
1.3.1 - Retort Design (210 Items)
1.3.2 - Oil Works Layout, Buildings & Services (223 Items)
1.3.3 - Breaking & Handling of Shale (7 Items)
1.3.4 - Disposal of Spent Shale (32 Items)
1.3.5 - Crude Oil Processing (23 Items)
1.3.6 - Ammonium Sulphate Production (7 Items)
1.3.7 - Internal Transport & Storage (47 Items)
1.4 - Oil Refining (1 Items)
1.4.1 - Refinery Layout, Buildings & Services (36 Items)
1.4.2 - Distillation & Fractionation (10 Items)
1.4.3 - Cracking (6 Items)
1.4.4 - Wax Separation & Processing (36 Items)
1.5 - Ancillary Processes
1.5.1 - Acid Production
1.5.2 - Coal Mining (9 Items)
1.5.3 - Candle & Wax Product Production (56 Items)
1.5.4 - Brick Production (5 Items)
1.5.5 - Blaes Sales (7 Items)
1.5.6 - Detergent Production (6 Items)
1.5.7 - Forestry for Pit Props (14 Items)
1.5.8 - Young's Lamps (25 Items)
1.5.9 - Engineering Workshops (15 Items)
1.5.10 - Engineering Industry & Other Suppliers (236 Items)
1.6 - Testing & Quality Control
1.6.1 - Quality Control & Laboratory Processes (249 Items)
1.6.2 - Experimental Plant & Processes (75 Items)
1.6.3 - Professional Journals & Technical Publications (170 Items)