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Process, Practice & Impact classification:

The following processes, practices and impacts relate to key technical and commercial activities of the Scottish shale oil industry or are associated with the community and environmental impact of their operations :

1.4.2 - Distillation & Fractionation
The first stage in the refining process is distillation and the separation of the various grades of oil resulting in crude naphtha, crude distillate (green oil) and the valuable by-product, coke. Before the introduction of cracking plant and other new refinery techniques in the 1930s which converted heavy fractions of oil to lighter and more valuable products, crude shale oil was refined into its lighter component fractions by a combination of boiler stills and coking stills.

The second stage of refining involves the removal of impurities in the oil by chemical treatment or washing with sulphuric acid followed by caustic soda.

1 - Technical Processes (6 Items)
1.1 - Shale Geology & Mineral Prospecting
1.1.1 - Geological Maps & Publications (86 Items)
1.1.2 - Mineral & Fossil Specimens (591 Items)
1.1.3 - Geologist & Prospector's Equipment (1 Items)
1.1.4 - Annotated Maps & Bore Data (132 Items)
1.2 - Shale Mining
1.2.1 - Underground Mining Plans (178 Items)
1.2.2 - Underground Haulage & Winding (244 Items)
1.2.3 - Underground Machinery & Services (27 Items)
1.2.4 - Underground Hand Tools, Lamps & Graith (102 Items)
1.2.5 - Surface Mine Layout, Buildings & Services (40 Items)
1.2.6 - Opencast Mining & Other Extraction (6 Items)
1.3 - Crude Oil Production
1.3.1 - Retort Design (210 Items)
1.3.2 - Oil Works Layout, Buildings & Services (223 Items)
1.3.3 - Breaking & Handling of Shale (7 Items)
1.3.4 - Disposal of Spent Shale (32 Items)
1.3.5 - Crude Oil Processing (23 Items)
1.3.6 - Ammonium Sulphate Production (7 Items)
1.3.7 - Internal Transport & Storage (47 Items)
1.4 - Oil Refining (1 Items)
1.4.1 - Refinery Layout, Buildings & Services (36 Items)
1.4.2 - Distillation & Fractionation (10 Items)
1.4.3 - Cracking (6 Items)
1.4.4 - Wax Separation & Processing (36 Items)
1.5 - Ancillary Processes
1.5.1 - Acid Production
1.5.2 - Coal Mining (9 Items)
1.5.3 - Candle & Wax Product Production (56 Items)
1.5.4 - Brick Production (5 Items)
1.5.5 - Blaes Sales (7 Items)
1.5.6 - Detergent Production (6 Items)
1.5.7 - Forestry for Pit Props (14 Items)
1.5.8 - Young's Lamps (25 Items)
1.5.9 - Engineering Workshops (15 Items)
1.5.10 - Engineering Industry & Other Suppliers (236 Items)
1.6 - Testing & Quality Control
1.6.1 - Quality Control & Laboratory Processes (249 Items)
1.6.2 - Experimental Plant & Processes (75 Items)
1.6.3 - Professional Journals & Technical Publications (170 Items)